The Tarantula Bibliography :: April 2016

The Tarantula Bibliography


28 MARCH 2016 - Added articles from Jour. Brit. Tar. Soc. 31(1).
11 FEBRUARY 2016 - Updated Aphonopelma to include overlooked 2013 paper by Gabriel, which declared four South American species nomen dubium.
04 FEBRUARY 2016 - Revised genus Aphonopelma as per Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016.
22 JANUARY 2016 - Added new genus Bistriopelma and its two species as per Kaderka, 2015.
18 JANUARY 2016 - Added new genus Neoholothele and subfamily Schismatothelinae as per Guadanucci, 2014 and Guadanucci & Weimann, 2015. Added revalidation of Dolichothele as per Lucas & Indicatti, 2015 and resulting transfer of all Oligoxystre to that genus and resurrection of two species of Hapalotremus and other changes.
19 DECEMBER 2015 - As per Smith & Jacobi, 2015, made many changes to the genera Cyriopagopus, Lampropelma and Phormingochilus and resurrected Omothymus while deleting Haplopelma.
28 OCTOBER 2015 - Transferred Brachypelma embrithes and B. angustum to Sericopelma.
27 OCTOBER 2015 - Added new monotypic genus and species Aguapanela arvi
20 OCTOBER 2015 - Added new species Tmesiphantes mirim.
8 OCTOBER 2015 - Added seven new species of Cyriocosmus as per Kaderka, 2015.
6 JULY 2015 - Revised Hysterocrates to include transfers from Phoneyusa and nomen dubium as per Gallon & Wendt, 2015.
28 MAY 2015 - Added placeholder "Davus" page to explain why this catalog does not recognize the genus and to have a place for a new species described as Davus mozinni.
4 MAY 2015 - Added new species Hapalotremus martinorum and a number of 2014 species previously excluded.
27 MARCH 2015 - Added new species Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos.
1 MARCH 2015 - Added publications.
3 JANUARY 2015 - Added new species Ami armihuariensis.
4 DECEMBER 2014 - Added new genus & species Longilyra johnlonghorni; revised Psalmopoeus.
22 OCTOBER 2014 - Added new species Psalmopoeus victori. Added new genus name Bumba, which replaces the preoccupied name Maraca (Orthoptera), and new species B. lennoni.
1 SEPTEMBER 2014 - Added new species Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus.
28 JUNE 2014 - Added new genus Euthycaelus and placed Hemiercus in junior synonymy of Schismatothele.
25 JUNE 2014 - Added two new species from India: Poecilotheria chaojii, sp. nov. and Haploclastus devamantha.
20 JUNE 2014 - Added two new species of Bonnetina from México.
07 MAY 2014 - Update the genus Euathlus, removed genus Paraphysa and resurrected the genus Phrixotrichus and transferred E. pulcherrimaklaasi to Maracaas per the new revision of Andean tarantulas by Perafán & Pérez-Miles.
30 MARCH 2014 - Updated the genus Hemirrhagus to reflect the revision and publication of five new species byMendoza, 2014.
21 MARCH 2014 - Updated the genus Acanthoscurria to reflect the synonymies and single new species (A. belterrensis) established by Paula et. al. 2014.
05 MARCH 2014 - Added two new species of Plesiopelma (P. aspidosperma and P. paganoi).
15 FEBRUARY 2014 - Added new genus Sahydroaraneus and made revisions to other Indian eumenophorine genera as per Mirza, et. al. 2014.
13 JANUARY 2014 - Decided to recognize Rudloff, 2001's transfer of the genus Acanthopelma to the subfamily Ischnocolinae abolishing the subfamily Acanthopelminae. This site formerly retained Acanthopelminae, following a number of authors.
6 DECEMBER 2013 - Revised genus Haploclastus to reflect revalidation of the genus Phlogiodes; new combination Phlogiodes validus
28 OCTOBER 2013 - Revised genus Poecilotheria to reflect three synonymies established by Gabriel, Gallon & Smith, 2013.
18 SEPTEMBER 2013 - Added new species Citharacanthus alvarezi.
14 AUGUST 2013 - Added new genus Munduruku (new type: M. bicoloratum).
09 AUGUST 2013 - Added new species: Grammostola diminuta and synonymy of G. fossor with G. vachoni.
05 JULY 2013 - Added new species: Avicularia rickwesti.
19 APRIL 2013 - Added new species: Lyrognathus giannisposatoi.
05 APRIL 2013 - Added new genus Neoheterophrictus and its three new species and made related changes to the genus Heterophrictus and Plesiophrictus.
18 MARCH 2013 - Added new species: Tmesiphantes hypogeus.
24 DECEMBER 2012 - Revised Vitalius nondescriptus comb. nov.
20 DECEMBER 2012 - Added new species: Poecilotheria rajaei.
15 NOVEMBER 2012 - Added new species: Eupalaestrus larae.
1 NOVEMBER 2012 - Site updated. New genus Typhochlaena added and the related revisions to Iridopelma, Pachistopelma and Tapinauchenius. Added new species Chaetopelma altugkadirorum, new genus and species Cotztetlana omiltemi and two new Bonnetina.
2 JUNE 2012 - Email subscription for updates added.
28 MAY 2012 - Flag counter added.
18 MAY 2012 - New genus Catanduba added.
7 MAY 2012 - Complete revision including West, Nunn & Hogg, 2012, which revises Selenocosmiinae and creates new genus Psednocnemis
24 APR 2011 - Added new species: Hapalopus lesleyae. Also added various bibliographic citations.
5 MAR 2011 - Added new species: Pterinochilus lapalala.
26 FEB 2011 - Complete site update with the 2010 taxonomic changes in Theraphosidae resulting in 2 new genera, 20 new species, 2 new combinations and 13 new synonymies. Thanks once again to Zoltan Mihaly Lestyan for providing me with data and reminding me that a site update was overdue.
21 DEC 2010 - Added new species: Theraphosa stirmi.
4 AUG 2010 - Added Gabriel's paper on the junior synonymy of Poecilotheria nallamalaiensis.
18 MAY 2010 - Added Haploclastus revision: himalayensis transferred to Chilobrachys; H. validus, senior synonym of H. robustus.
2 MAY 2010 - Added six new species of Coremiocnemis described from West Malaysia and Sumatra by West and Nunn.
25 APR 2010 - Added new genus Agnostopelma and its two species.
23 FEB 2010 - Added 3 new Lyrognathus species; removed Lyrognathus pugnax, junior synonym of L. crotalus; removed Selenocosmia lyra, nomen dubium.
10 DEC 2009 - Corrected sidemenu species counts for Chaetopelma, Ischnocolus, Phormictopus and Poecilotheria; updated total species count.
17 NOV 2009 - Updated sidemenu species counts for Avicularia, Chilobrachys, Cyriocosmus, Hapalopus, and Ischnocolus.
17 NOV 2009 - Removed Ischnocolus decoratus, junior synonym of Chilobrachys fimbriatus.
17 NOV 2009 - Updated Chilobrachys khasiensis, transferred from Ischnocolus.
7 NOV 2009 - Updated Nhandu tripepii, senior synonym of N. vulpinus.
7 NOV 2009 - Added 3 new Avicularia, 2 new Cyriocosmus, 1 new Hapalopus species.
7 NOV 2009 - Official launch of completely revised site.
2004/2005 - Creation of The Tarantula Bibliography.

Beginning 28 May 2012
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What is The Tarantula Bibliography?

The Tarantula Bibliography is a resource that presents currently recognized tarantula species along with bibliographic citations focusing on popular sources such as tarantula society journals and hobby magazines. This database allows the interested researcher, particularly the tarantula breeding arachnoculturist, to find related information in support of captive husbandry and propagation efforts. Basically, The Tarantula Bibliography provides much of the information found on the Theraphosidae page of The World Spider Catalog, but presents it in an attractive and user-friendly format geared towards hobbyists not scientists. The key feature is the citations of popular works of interest to the arachnoculturist, such as captive husbandry and propagation articles and those on natural history, ecology and travel.

Publications Cited

The Tarantula Bibliography is for the hobbyist not the scientist, and therefore focuses on popular works that will be of greatest interest to the arachnoculturist. It does not strive to list all relevant scientific or taxonomic publications. Each species is accompanied by a citation of the paper (often technical) that described it, but the majority of the additional citations are of general interest and are readable by those without technical knowledge.

General How to Use

This site arranges the current species of the family Theraphosidae by subfamily into Genus Pages and divides more general information into a number of subcategories within the categories Captive Husbandry and Natural History. The left sidebar lists all present genera with the number of species in parenthesis. Click on genus for corresponding page containing all species references and relevant bibliographic citations. The right sidebar lists the present subfamilies and their associated genera for additional reference, and also special Captive Husbandry and Natural History pages that contain references that are not specific to a genus or species as well as a Books page.

Genus Page Header Example

Poecilotheria Simon, 1885
SELENOCOSMIINAE — type species: Poecilotheria fasciata

Simon, E. 1885.
Certain histological and anatomical features of the nervous system of a large Indian spider, Poecilotheria.
American Zoologist 9(1): 113-119.

The above example shows that the genus name is Poecilotheria and the genus was described by Simon in 1885. The genus is a member of the subfamily Selenocosmiinae and the type species is Poecilotheria fasciata. The first citation is for the genus desciption (see explanation of citation format below). Others that may follow are articles that are relevant to the genus, but cannot be relegated to one or more particular species.

How to Use Genus Pages

Each subfamily, genus and species name is followed by the author of that taxon and publication year. For those unfamiliar with this protocol, this basically means that, for example, a species name is followed by the surname(s) of the individual(s) that described that species and the year published. If the author used a name that differs at all from the present name the surname and year are enclosed in parentheses. Thus, Poecilotheria subfusca Pocock, 1895 indicates that the species was described by Pocock in an 1895 publication using that exact name, while Poecilotheria fasciata (Latreille, 1805) denotes that Latreille published the species in 1805 using a name that is not currently valid (in this case, Mygale fasciata). Only the author’s surname is used unless it is shared by other workers in the field, which necessitates the use of first initials for differentiation.

For species, the following line states the country or countries where it is found. This information is based on The World Spider Catalog and other sources with some changes or additions. For every species the first citation represents the publication of that species (this also holds true for the higher taxa: genus, subfamily, family). Other references to that species then follow alphabetically. As the title suggests, this guide is intended for the arachnoculturist or hobbyist. It is not a complete bibliography of all writings on each taxon found in the scientific literature or all synonymies. Instead the taxon description is always provided and additional references are chosen primarily from hobby literature and popular works with the occasional inclusion of papers of potential hobbyist interest from peer-reviewed science journals. As time permits, many more academic/scientific references will be added.

As mentioned above, general articles (those not pertaining to a specific genus or species) are divided into Captive Husbandry and Natural History pages, which in turn are split into a number of categories. A separate Books page is also provided.

Citation Format

Although there are some standard practices followed with regards to article citations, there is no one standard or correct manner of formatting a reference. Different scientific journals, or groups of scientific articles of a specific discipline, have their own standard formats. Here I have chosen to use one I favor that I hope makes references easy to read, and allows them to stand out during a quick visual search. The author(s) and publication year are alone on the top/first line in bold green type. The second line is the article title or book name; these two can be differentiated by their format. That is, magazine or journal article titles are not italicized and most words, except for proper nouns (and all nouns in German), begin with a lower case letter. Book names are italicized and most words are capitalized. The final line provides the journal name (italicized and often abbreviated in a manner recognized by libraries), Volume, number and page numbers in the case of articles, and the name of the publisher and city of publication in the case of books. The Volume and number of a periodical such as a magazine or journal is provided by first the Volume and then the number in parentheses with no space between. After the colon are the page numbers covered by the article. In the case of species descriptions (and some other papers), the exact page numbers, figures (f. or fig.) and plates (pl.) that describe or illustrate the specific species are provided in brackets.

The following examples illustrate first a fictitious species description and then a book:

Author, U.R. 2005.
Scientific article describing a species: Note words beginning with a lower case letter.
Scient. Jour. 9(5): 100-140 [121-122, f. a-e, pl. 1, 3].

Author, U.R. 2005.
The Book About Tarantulas and Bibliographic Citations.
Exotic Fauna Press, Nashville, TN

Finding the Publications

This site provides bibliographic citations of published material related to theraphosid spiders. Articles of interest will need to be obtained by the user. Some citations are accompanied by hyperlinks to downloadable or viewable files online, but the majority must be sought through library requests, publisher contacts or from other enthusiasts. You first should search the Internet, but in most cases contacting a university librarian or interlibrary loan department will be necessary. Please remember that copyright laws protect publications. This site does not condone or participate in copyright violation.

In most cases, popular works such as hobby magazines or tarantula society journals are best obtained from the publishers themselves (see listing of many tarantula societies and publication websites below for links) or by networking with fellow hobbyists. Scientific works can be obtained by consulting your municipal library or, better still, the library of a major university. Through the US interlibrary loan system you will have access to libraries nationwide. These libraries will either ship the journal to your library for loan or send a photocopy or electronic PDF file. There may be fees associated with these requests. Although some articles may be downloaded from other sites (and a few from this site) by clicking on provided links, not every article available online is noted as such here. Use Google or another search engine to search using complete or partial titles or by author name(s). If you find a paper please report the link by clicking here.

Relevant Publications

Most citations were obtained from literature searches and the websites of academic journals and arachnid society or hobby magazines some of which are listed below:

A Note About Subspecies

Spider taxonomy is unusual in that almost no subspecies have ever been recognized (see KRAUS, O. 2000. Why no subspecies in spiders? European Arachnology 2000: 303-314 for a discussion of this). However, The World Spider Catalog still lists a few tarantulas subspecies that were published. Since this handful of dubious subspecies is in stark contrast to the practice of only classifying spiders to the species level, subspecies have been omitted from this site.

About Photos

Original releases of The Tarantula Bibliography included photo links for many species. Keeping these links updated and removing broken links is a near impossible task and they have been deleted from this update. The user is no doubt quite familiar with using a search engine like Google to seek photos and by using the scientific names provided on this site should have no trouble finding images. Additionally, Rick West's features photos of many of the world's tarantulas, and it is at this amazing website that the user should begin his or her photo search.


Please contribute! To submit additional citations, corrections or provide links for papers that are available online please click here.

Credits and Acknowledgements

The taxonomic framework of this site is primarily derived from the Theraphosidae page of Norman Platnick's World Spider Catalog. Dr. Platnick's invaluable resource is the single most important taxonomic database and bibliographic reference to all spiders, not just Theraphosidae. Its vast scope makes frequent updates an impossible task and, therefore, this site also looks to recent literature for changes in taxonomy. Citations for papers describing species were also obtained from this site.

However, The Tarantula Bibliography's main feature is the bibliographic citations that focus on popular hobby literature in addition to some scientific publications. These citations are geared toward the tarantula breeder and keeper and are derived mostly from numerous sources including Michael Jacobi's own library of tarantula hobby journals, magazines and books. I mostly thank the authors of the articles cited as well as the editors of the publications that contain them.

I must give special thanks to German arachnoculturist Martin Huber ( who generously sent me extensive lists of citations from his personal database, which significantly aided the original creation of this site in 2005. Over the years Martin has continued to support The Tarantula Bibliography with his submissions.

Additionally, the following contributors have helped with The Tarantula Bibliography: Thierry Imbert (France), Zoltan Mihaly Lestyan (Hungary), Stuart J. Longhorn (United Kingdom), Steve Nunn (Australia), Peter Pástor (Czech Republic), Airon Luis Pereira (Brazil), Eric Reynolds (USA), Andrew M. Smith (United Kingdom), Boris Striffler (Germany), and Fabian Vol (France).

The Disclaimer

Michael Jacobi is a tarantula breeder, naturalist, writer and former arachnid and reptile dealer with 35+ years experience, NOT a taxonomist. This site lists species currently recognized in the literature. It makes no claim to the validity of each species. Although this site is perodically updated, it cannot keep up on every publication and must await future updates of the WSC to verify listed species. And that's just the taxonomic part of this resource. Keeping up with popular publications is an equally daunting task. Please help by submitting bibliographic citations. Email here to do so.

Copyright Notice

This site and its server do not host any digital files of published papers. It provides links to papers available elsewhere online as a service to its readers. Many of these papers are located on the website of original publisher, but in some cases the digital files may be hosted elsewhere and The Tarantula Bibliography, Michael Jacobi, Exotic Fauna and its web host/server are not responsible for any possible copyright infringement.



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